Global Central Bank Focus

Wages Are Rising: Good News for Workers, the Economy … and the Fed

The Fed’s projections suggest it wants to run the economy a little hot and keep unemployment lower for longer than is typical in Fed rate hike cycles.

Considering how the year began, there was little mystery about what the Federal Reserve would do – nothing – at its March meeting, but a lot of interest and a wide range of opinion about how it would communicate a decision to keep interest rates on hold. Speculation focused on three key communications:

  • The “dot plot” – that is, the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) participants’ assessments of the appropriate policy rate over the coming years
  • The balance of risk assessment
  • The Summary of Economic Projections (SEP) for inflation, unemployment and NAIRU (non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment)

The biggest surprise at the March meeting was that the median of the dots now indicates only two more rate hikes for 2016, down from the four hikes in 2016 projected at December’s meeting. This had the effect of moving the Fed dot plot liftoff path for 2016 and 2017 closer to market pricing, but with the latter still well below the former.

As for balance of risk, whereas in January the Fed said that it was “closely monitoring” global developments and was “assessing” their implications, in the March statement the Fed has apparently finished its assessment and now concludes that “global economic and financial developments continue to pose risks.”

The SEP projections now show somewhat less inflation in 2016 and slightly less inflation in 2017 than was projected in December, and the median estimate of NAIRU has shifted down by one-tenth of a percentage point to 4.8% (see Figure 1). What has attracted somewhat less attention is that, notwithstanding this downward adjustment to NAIRU, the Fed projects that its policy of increasing the fed funds rate toward a “new equilibrium” destination at a “gradual” pace will continue to provide accommodation sufficient to push the unemployment rate below NAIRU later this year and keep it there through at least 2018. In other words, the Fed wants to run the economy at least a little hot and keep the unemployment rate lower than NAIRU for longer than is typical in Fed rate hike cycles.

Letting labor run hot

Given the initial conditions that Janet Yellen inherited upon becoming Fed Chair in February 2014 and the Phillips curve lens through which she and key members of the FOMC interpret the labor market, setting a policy path that will allow the labor market to “run hot” is an understandable choice. (The Phillips curve charts the relationship between employment and inflation.) U.S. personal consumption expenditures (PCE) inflation – the Fed’s preferred measure – has consistently remained below the Fed’s 2% target since it was first announced in January 2012 (see Figure 2). In the Fed’s model, holding constant expected inflation, the only way to get inflation moving up to the 2% target is for the unemployment rate to be pushed below NAIRU.

Another possible motivation for the Fed allowing the labor market to run hot is concern over declines in several key measures of inflation expectations that traditionally tend to “hold constant.” For example, both the Michigan survey of household inflation expectations as well as breakeven inflation rates derived from the Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities (TIPS) market fell below their historical averages in 2014 and have remained below those averages since then. By projecting a baseline trajectory for the fed funds rate that lags behind projected inflation throughout 2016 and almost all of 2017, the Fed hopes to steer inflation expectations higher: Under this gradual-liftoff scenario, real interest rates at the short end of the yield curve will remain negative for at least two years.

A challenge the Fed will face as it tries to engineer a “dovish” rate hike cycle is that investors, households and firms are conditioned by experience to associate Fed rate hike cycles with Fed efforts either to reduce inflation or (in 1994 and 2004) to prevent inflation from rising above 2%. Chair Yellen herself expressed during her 16 March press conference (and reiterated in her speech in New York on 29 March) some doubts about the upward momentum in core inflation, saying, “I’m wary and haven’t yet concluded that we have seen any significant uptick that will be lasting in, for example, core inflation … [However,] with continuing improvement in the labor market, I think we will see upward pressure on inflation.”

Labor’s share of national income rising

Back in August 2014, I published an essay entitled “Share and Share Alike” that documented the underappreciated pro-cyclicality of labor’s share of U.S. national income toward the midpoint of past economic cycles. At that time, I wrote:

“Much commentary and public concern have focused on the evident trend decline in the share of U.S. national income flowing to labor (and the corresponding trend rise in the share of U.S. national income flowing to capital). … While it is too soon to tell if the current expansion will – like prior expansions – feature a rise in labor’s share back toward the historical average, there is some evidence of an acceleration in wages that is beginning to emerge in tandem with the ongoing decline in the unemployment rate. If and when labor’s share of national income and wages rises and unemployment continues to fall, what will be the implications for inflation and, in turn, the Fed?”

Since I wrote that in the summer of 2014, labor’s share of national income has increased materially in tandem with the much more widely discussed decline in the unemployment rate. As of Q4 2015, it stands just north of 67%, reaching a share last observed (on the upswing) in December 2006 – see Figure 3.

Note that this pattern of a mid-cycle rebound in labor’s share of national income is typical of past U.S. recoveries. In the three expansions during the “Great Moderation” – the quarter-century after Paul Volcker broke the back of inflation – labor’s share of income initially fell during the early days of recovery and then began to rebound during the expansion phase of the business cycle. Importantly, this rise in labor’s share occurred before, and usually well before, the business cycle peak and continued as the economy fell into recession. The rise in labor’s share that occurs during recessions is well-known and is usually attributed to the desire of firms to “hoard” labor initially in downturns as sales decline – holding off on firing workers until the decline in demand is clearly expected to persist. What is less appreciated is the phenomenon of labor’s rising share of income well in advance of the peak in economic activity and for reasons unrelated to labor hoarding.

Key takeaways for investors and Fed watchers
Although it took a while to kick in, it does appear that this recovery from the Great Recession of 2007­–2009 has returned to the pattern of past cycles in which labor’s share of the pie begins to rise – and of course capital’s profit share of national income begins to decline.

These facts are worth remembering the next time you see financial news anchors bemoaning sluggish gains in corporate earnings. Especially in a low productivity growth world, gains in labor’s share will come, at least to some extent, out of profit growth. The extent to which this happens will depend upon how much of the higher labor cost bill is passed through to prices.

The Fed wants higher inflation from today’s levels, so it will not be inclined to run a hawkish policy that would prevent it. That said, the Fed is always reminding us that 2% is a target, not a ceiling, and also that it does not want to run a policy that keeps average inflation below 2%. The Fed’s baseline SEP projections do not show inflation overshooting the 2% target. That is the Fed’s story and it is sticking to it. I suspect, however, that at least several prominent members of the FOMC would not be unhappy with a modest overshoot of the 2% inflation target – say 2.25% for a year or two – especially if it is a result of labor share rising toward its historical average.

The Author

Richard Clarida

Former Global Strategic Advisor, 2006-2018

View Profile

Latest Insights



PIMCO provides services only to qualified institutions and investors. This is not an offer to any person in any jurisdiction where unlawful or unauthorized. | Pacific Investment Management Company LLC, 650 Newport Center Drive, Newport Beach, CA 92660 is regulated by the United States Securities and Exchange Commission. | PIMCO Europe Ltd (Company No. 2604517) and PIMCO Europe Ltd - Italy (Company No. 07533910969) are authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (12 Endeavour Square, London E20 1JN) in the UK. The Italy branch is additionally regulated by the Commissione Nazionale per le Società e la Borsa (CONSOB) in accordance with Article 27 of the Italian Consolidated Financial Act. PIMCO Europe Ltd services are available only to professional clients as defined in the Financial Conduct Authority’s Handbook and are not available to individual investors, who should not rely on this communication. | PIMCO Deutschland GmbH (Company No. 192083, Seidlstr. 24-24a, 80335 Munich, Germany), PIMCO Deutschland GmbH Italian Branch (Company No. 10005170963), PIMCO Deutschland GmbH Spanish Branch (N.I.F. W2765338E) and PIMCO Deutschland GmbH Swedish Branch (SCRO Reg. No. 516410-9190) are authorised and regulated by the German Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin) (Marie- Curie-Str. 24-28, 60439 Frankfurt am Main) in Germany in accordance with Section 32 of the German Banking Act (KWG). The Italian Branch, Spanish Branch and Swedish Branch are additionally supervised by the Commissione Nazionale per le Società e la Borsa (CONSOB) in accordance with Article 27 of the Italian Consolidated Financial Act, the Comisión Nacional del Mercado de Valores (CNMV) in accordance with obligations stipulated in articles 168 and  203  to 224, as well as obligations contained in Tile V, Section I of the Law on the Securities Market (LSM) and in articles 111, 114 and 117 of Royal Decree 217/2008 and the Swedish Financial Supervisory Authority (Finansinspektionen) in accordance with Chapter 25 Sections 12-14 of the Swedish Securities Markets Act, respectively. The services provided by PIMCO Deutschland GmbH are available only to professional clients as defined in Section 67 para. 2 German Securities Trading Act (WpHG). They are not available to individual investors, who should not rely on this communication. | PIMCO (Schweiz) GmbH (registered in Switzerland, Company No. CH-, Brandschenkestrasse 41, 8002 Zurich, Switzerland, Tel: + 41 44 512 49 10. The services provided by PIMCO (Schweiz) GmbH are not available to individual investors, who should not rely on this communication but contact their financial adviser. | PIMCO Asia Pte Ltd (8 Marina View, #30-01, Asia Square Tower 1, Singapore 018960, Registration No. 199804652K) is regulated by the Monetary Authority of Singapore as a holder of a capital markets services licence and an exempt financial adviser. The asset management services and investment products are not available to persons where provision of such services and products is unauthorised. | PIMCO Asia Limited (Suite 2201, 22nd Floor, Two International Finance Centre, No. 8 Finance Street, Central, Hong Kong) is licensed by the Securities and Futures Commission for Types 1, 4 and 9 regulated activities under the Securities and Futures Ordinance. The asset management services and investment products are not available to persons where provision of such services and products is unauthorised. | PIMCO Australia Pty Ltd ABN 54 084 280 508, AFSL 246862 (PIMCO Australia). This publication has been prepared without taking into account the objectives, financial situation or needs of investors. Before making an investment decision, investors should obtain professional advice and consider whether the information contained herein is appropriate having regard to their objectives, financial situation and needs. | PIMCO Japan Ltd (Toranomon Towers Office 18F, 4-1-28, Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan 105-0001) Financial Instruments Business Registration Number is Director of Kanto Local Finance Bureau (Financial Instruments Firm) No. 382. PIMCO Japan Ltd is a member of Japan Investment Advisers Association and The Investment Trusts Association, Japan. Investment management products and services offered by PIMCO Japan Ltd are offered only to persons within its respective jurisdiction, and are not available to persons where provision of such products or services is unauthorized. Valuations of assets will fluctuate based upon prices of securities and values of derivative transactions in the portfolio, market conditions, interest rates and credit risk, among others. Investments in foreign currency denominated assets will be affected by foreign exchange rates. There is no guarantee that the principal amount of the investment will be preserved, or that a certain return will be realized; the investment could suffer a loss. All profits and losses incur to the investor. The amounts, maximum amounts and calculation methodologies of each type of fee and expense and their total amounts will vary depending on the investment strategy, the status of investment performance, period of management and outstanding balance of assets and thus such fees and expenses cannot be set forth herein. | PIMCO Taiwan Limited is managed and operated independently. The reference number of business license of the company approved by the competent authority is (107) FSC SICE Reg. No.001. 40F., No.68, Sec. 5, Zhongxiao E. Rd., Xinyi Dist., Taipei City 110, Taiwan (R.O.C.), Tel: +886 (02) 8729-5500. | PIMCO Canada Corp. (199 Bay Street, Suite 2050, Commerce Court Station, P.O. Box 363, Toronto, ON, M5L 1G2) services and products may only be available in certain provinces or territories of Canada and only through dealers authorized for that purpose. | PIMCO Latin America Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima 3477, Torre A, 5° andar São Paulo, Brazil 04538-133. | No part of this material may be reproduced in any form, or referred to in any other publication, without express written permission. PIMCO is a trademark of Allianz Asset Management of America L.P. in the United States and throughout the world.

Investing in the bond market is subject to risks, including market, interest rate, issuer, credit, inflation risk, and liquidity risk. The value of most bonds and bond strategies are impacted by changes in interest rates. Bonds and bond strategies with longer durations tend to be more sensitive and volatile than those with shorter durations; bond prices generally fall as interest rates rise, and the current low interest rate environment increases this risk. Current reductions in bond counterparty capacity may contribute to decreased market liquidity and increased price volatility. Bond investments may be worth more or less than the original cost when redeemed. All investments contain risk and may lose value.

This material contains the opinions of the manager and such opinions are subject to change without notice. This material has been distributed for informational purposes only and should not be considered as investment advice or a recommendation of any particular security, strategy or investment product. Information contained herein has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but not guaranteed. No part of this material may be reproduced in any form, or referred to in any other publication, without express written permission. PIMCO is a trademark of Allianz Asset Management of America L.P. in the United States and throughout the world. ©2016, PIMCO.